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Monday / March 27.

IoT: The internet of smart villages

IoT: The future of cities

By Vinay Solanki 

The Internet of Things (IoT) is creating its buzz all over the world with companies and researchers predicting billions of devices to be connected by 2020. Programs like Digital India and the Smart Cities Mission show that India is not lagging behind. While focusing on the cities is important for India to grow, I think we also need to focus on the challenges faced by Indian villages. In fact, as per the 2011 census, about 70% of India still lives in villages.

Problems faced by the villagers usually go unnoticed. Further, technological solutions designed in the context of cities, aggravate the problem.

One of my friends wrote an article on “The Rural Problem Statements” listing a many of these challenges. Here, I will try to propose some IoT-based solutions for these problem statements. Since the internet is a pre-requisite for making the IoT solution viable, my basic assumption is that villages have some form of internet connectivity. I have classified my solutions under the following four categories: Home, Food, People and Conservation. 

Household utilities

  • Gas Leakages

The situation of LPG leaks is even more serious in our villages.
This is a common problem in both cities and villages. Usage of LPG cylinder is not a safe way of cooking. In fact, Pune alone registers 10 cases of LPG leaks every month. However, the situation is even more serious in our villages. A probable solution to this problem is the use of a gas sensor plugged onto a micro-controller board (like an Arduino). It has an in-built system that alerts the homeowner through an SMS, smartphone app or a manual alarm. The example below is a Veerobot gas sensor solution which can be purchased on Amazon India.
Veerobot gas sensor solution: Using IoT to prevent gas leakage

Veerobot gas sensor solution: Using IoT to prevent gas leakage | Photo Courtesy: Amazon

  • Life Hazards

Villages face the challenge of loss of life due to lack of proper infrastructure and connectivity to major hospitals during emergencies. For example, in the case of a fire or water hazard, people realise the dangers too late. Hence, smoke sensors should come in handy to alert homeowners if a fire breaks out. Moisture sensors can also play a key role in monitoring the life of brick walls. They can warn occupants ahead of time if the walls have become too weak to withstand the load.

  • Intrusion Detection

door alarm can be built using NodeMCU ESP8266 with a magnetic strip. It will be useful for keeping homes safe from intrusion while the owner is away. This is important in villages as villagers mostly have single family homes with no guard or safety perimeter around it. This solution is extendable to windows as well. A sample source code is available for download here.

NodeMCU ESP8266: The building block of IoT based intrusion detection

NodeMCU ESP8266: The building block of IoT based intrusion detection | Photo Courtesy: Wikiwand

Making farms smarter

  • Storage

A simple solution to check for moisture is using a sensor that can measure it and alert upon the breach of the threshold.

Landlords, traders, and villagers usually store their food in containers, sacks, drums or bags. These stores are kept in homes or in warehouses for long durations. Common problems include infestation by insects, attacks by rodents and damage due to temperature or moisture. A simple solution is using a moisture sensor that can measure and alert when the threshold is breached. KFRI is researching on creating an integrated Food Quality Control system for transportation and storage by monitoring the temperature. Likewise, a solution can be designed to check if a particular container or bag is leaking and inform the owner before the damage spreads.

  • Precision Farming

IoT in agriculture has become one of the fastest growing fields. Sensors designed to watch moisture, soil quality and weather can benefit the farmers. Several solutions have been designed to optimise the usage of water for irrigation. Also, there are innovations to control the consumption of fuel in tractors. Sensors which are connected to animals to report contagious diseases are especially very beneficial. Also, real-time reporting of farming data can help to fine tune the time of harvesting. We can work towards creating ‘future farms’, such as the one pictured below, if the Government can design a workable direct technology transfer scheme. 

IoT based farming

The future farms of smart villages | Photo Courtesy: Nesta

  • Livestock Monitoring

Using a combination of sensors and wireless IoT applications, one can track the health, well-being, and location of the cattle.

Livestock monitoring deals with animal husbandry and cost savings. Using a combination of sensors and wireless IoT applications, one can track the health, well-being, and location of the cattle. This data helps to identify sick animals, locate animals and in-turn can also lower labour costs. Symphony Link is one possible solution. Another solution is a wireless retrofitted bolus in the cow’s stomach, which can communicate via Bluetooth to an ear-tag.

  • Crop Water Management

Proper water management can boost crop productivity.  With sensors attached to water gates, water will not be wasted as farmers will be able to control the gates through apps on their smartphones. Furthermore, farmers will be able to calculate the rainfall in the current year and then decide the amount of irrigation required for the crops.

Personal care devices

  • Track-n-Trace

A lot of wearable tracking devices are available these days to track children, elderly and loved ones. There are a plethora of solutions coming up in the field of personal safety. Similar devices can be used to leverage the assignments of delivery trucks.

  • Health

A Health ATM allows you to know about your health and check the key body parameters such as blood count, BMI, etc. in a cheap and quick manner.

IoT in healthcare

YOLO health ATM: The future of healthcare | Photo Courtesy: Tech in Asia

Conservation of resources

India, along with rest of the world, is worrying about the availability of fresh water in the future. Furthermore, saving electricity is of prime importance for India. This includes exploring new and renewable sources of energy.

  • Water Tank Automation

A simple solution to track the timing of water inflow and operating the water pump can be made. The pump will turn off when the tank is full, thereby saving water from overflowing. Amazon is selling one such device.

  • Electrical Appliances

IoT-based solutions allow you to control appliances in your home including fans, geysers, air conditioners, etc. Since villages often face a shortage of electricity, an affordable solution can be built coupled with machine learning. This will allow the villagers to use the appliances efficiently.

I will conclude by saying that Indian villages face a plethora of challenges and hence, present many opportunities to makers, developers, designers and soution-builders to address these needs.


Vinay Solanki is the Global Head for revenue assurance and fraud management for Airtel Money (a mobile money initiative).
Featured Image Credit: Datafloq
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